The image shows a 3D map of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, reconstructed from measurements of weak gravitational lensing with the Hubble Space Telescope.
The distance from the Earth increases from left to right and the dark matter becomes more clumpy over time as it collapses under the pull of gravity.
There is far more gravity the universe than there should be based on the amount of observable mass. Galaxies should be torn apart by their spin, but some strange, invisible matter - dark matter - is exerting extra gravity, holding them together.
The matter we know of only forms around 4% of the universe. Dark matter forms around 26%, and we don’t know what it is. Some theorists believe it contains supersymmetric particles - partners to known particles.
Many theories predict that dark matter particles could be produced at the LHC. They would not be directly detectable, but scientists could infer their existence by studying the energy and momentum missing after a particle collision. Predictions for dark matter often involve theories about supersymmetry and extra dimensions. Discoveries could open doors to new physics beyond the standard model.
Dark energy forms around 70% of the universe and causes it to expand at an accelerating rate. Distributed evenly in space and time - it’s effect is not diluted as the universe expands.