Matter

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Matter definition.
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Solids, liquids and gases.

Kinetic theory describes the arrangement and movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases. Particles in solids have the least kinetic energy and gas particles have the most energy. A gas can be condensed into a liquid by removing energy or increasing pressure.

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Reposted from Matter by Visual science
A planet of burning ice.

Gliese 436 b is 439 degrees celsius, but strong gravity prevents the ice from melting.

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Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) will sublime at room temperature and pressure.

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Physical changes.

With a physical change, the form of matter is altered but one substance is not transformed into another.
Melted chocolate is still chocolate and evaporated water is still composed of water molecules, so these are physical changes.

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Chemical changes.

Chemical changes involve the making or breaking of bonds between atoms to form new chemical substances.

The bonding of Hydrogen and Oxygen to form Water is explosive. The space shuttle rockets cause this bonding and the exhaust gasses are mainly water vapour.

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Difference between chemical and physical changes.

Physical changes in matter are usually easier to reverse than chemical changes.

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Phase changes.
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Plasma on earth.
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Plasma globe.

Glass sphere filled with a mixture of various noble gases, with a high-voltage electrode in the centre.

The energy ionises the gas as it jumps to a conductive object (like a hand). The ions are excited and loose energy, emitting photons (causing the visual effect).

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Kinetic energy.

The kinetic energy of an object is the energy it possesses due to its motion.

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Potential energy.

The potential energy of an object is the stored energy it possesses due to its position.

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Specific heat capacity.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1C.
Space shuttle photo by Don Cochrane
Earth photo by Mathew Roberts

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Specific latent heat.

Both eggs will take the same amount of time to cook because the temperature of a substance (in this case water) does not change during a phase change (in this case from liquid to gas).

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Gas pressure and temperature.
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Ideal gas law.
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Reposted from Matter by Visual science
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Reposted from Matter by Visual science